While Vision 2030 is captured in three pillars, its survival depends on the foundations or what are known as the enablers, which are critical in catalysing and driving the required social, political and economic transformations.
Kenya has developed a multi-modal transport infrastructure system comprising roads, railways, maritime, oil pipeline and air transport networks. The Transport Infrastructure for Regional Economic Integration is the first focal sector of Kenya’s strategy programme. The key targets for infra- structure development in line with Vision 2030 include:
- Implementation of the national spatial plan and national integration transport master plan;
- Development of a new transport corridor from Lamu Port to South Sudan and Ethiopia (LAPSSET).
- Fast-tracking the implementation of the national road safety action plan;
- Development of road maintenance and management system, establishment of rapid bus transportation system and light rail for Nairobi and its suburbs;
- The de-congestion of Nairobi city
Some infrastructure projects have already been initiated. Modernisation of Nairobi’s Jomo Kenyatta International Airport (JKIA) is ongoing, with the construction of an apron at the new terminal 4, taxiways and associated facilities already completed. Plans are at an advanced stage for the construction of the unit’s building and a multi-storey car park.
As for Nairobi, the new roads are expected to give the capital city a major facelift and enhance its prestige as the regional hub and centre of commerce and international travel. Improved road transportation will reduce the cost of doing business. A de-congested city will be of benefit to the residents as well as the business community of the greater Nairobi metropolitan area. An example of the road network overhaul is the 52km Thika super- highway, supported by two bypasses, the Eastern Bypass connecting it to another highway — Mombasa Road, and the Northern Bypass also connecting it to another highway – Waiyaki Way. An efficient road network contributes to poverty alleviation by facilitating marketing of agricultural produce and stimulating non-farm activities of industrial and commercial nature. The building of the terminal and extension of Kisumu Airport runway which commenced in October 2008 was completed in September 2011. Other infrastructure projects are the improvement of Wilson Airport, rehabilitation of airstrips across the country, dredging of the port of Mombasa, development of a rapid bus transport system within the Nairobi metropolitan region, construction of Lamu-South Sudan-Ethiopia trans- port corridor and the Northern corridor transport improvement project.
Water and sanitation
Since the economic and social developments anticipated by Vision 2030 will require more high quality water supplies than at present, the country needs to conserve water sources and enhance ways of harvesting and using rain and underground water. The 2030 Vision for Water and Sanitation is to ensure their improved availability and access to all. The performance of key sectors in the economy, especially agriculture, livestock development, energy, manufacturing and tourism, depend on the availability and reliability of water services and resources. Improved water source and sanitation will be realised through specific strategies, such as:
- raising the standards of the country’s overall water resource management, storage and harvesting capability;
- rehabilitating the hydro-meteorological data gathering network;
- constructing multipurpose dams (e.g. on Nzoia and Nyando rivers);
- constructing water and sanitation facilities to support a growing urban and industrial population.
The policy priorities of the sector are centred on the following areas:
- Expansion of water coverage to move towards achieving Vision 2030, MTP and MDGs.
- Expansion of sewerage facilities for both safe and good living environment.
- Scaling up water storage to improve water security.
- Scaling up irrigation to reduce dependence of rain-fed agriculture and address food security.
- Catchment conservation targeting the main water sources/ towers.
The sector is implementing Water Sector Strategic Plan (WSSP) 2010- 2015 bringing together the water sector players to manage, protect and develop water resources. Emphasis is also placed on implementation of ‘the Pro-Poor Implementation Plan’ through the Water Services Trust Fund (WSTF) to reach areas without water and sewerage services.The flagship projects and other programmes and projects being implemented by the sector include:
- Water resources information management
- Rehabilitation of 600 hydro metrological stations
- Groundwater hydro-geological mapping in Turkana and Marsabit
- Formulation and implementation of six water catchment management strategies
- Water harvesting and storage programme
- Construction of two large multi-purpose dams along Rivers Nzoia and Nyando
- Construction of 24 medium-sized dams
- Construction of a 54km inter-basin water transfer canal.
- National water supply and sanitation
- Rehabilitation and augmentation of the Mzima pipeline
- Expansion of water and sanitation coverage for Nairobi, Mombasa, Kisumu, Nakuru and Kisii and satellite towns around them
- Rehabilitation of water supplies in 26 medium-sized towns to support activities in the economic pillar
- Urban sewerage programme for towns with high water table.
- Irrigation and Drainage Infrastructure Development
- Expansion of the existing irrigation schemes in Bura, Hola, Kano Plains, Nzoia, Perkera, Kerio Valley, Mwea, Taita Taveta, Ewaso Nyiro North schemes; and
- Open up irrigation projects in high potential areas of Kitui, Mwingi, Kibwezi, Tana River (Tana Delta), Turkana South, Nyando and Yatta.
An additional 2.6 million people were sup- plied with clean water in the 2010/11 financial year, with 75 per cent of the urban households and 48 per cent rural benefiting. Since 2008/2009, the ministry has provided access to clean drinking water to an additional 5.9 million people through rehabilitation and expansion of urban and rural water supplies, drilling of boreholes, and construction/desilting of water pans and dams.
The ministry released Kshs586 million ($7 million) between January and June, 2011, to 19 counties of Garissa, Isiolo, Wajir, Samburu,Marsabit, Mandera, Laikipia, Tharaka, Kitui, Makueni, Kajiado, West Pokot, Turkana, Baringo, Kilifi, Kwale, Tana River, Lamu and Taita Taveta) for mitigation activities. Some 996 water trucking centres were served, 186 boreholes previously broken down were repaired/ rehabilitated, 242 community water schemes given fuel subsidy, 426 plastic/collapsible water tanks distributed and 100,000 aqua tabs distributed to disinfect water at household level. About 2.2 million people and nine million livestock benefited from the interventions.
The ministry also provided an additional 569,720 people with access to sanitation and sewerage services in 2010/2011. Some 572 VIP latrines/ facilities, 804 Ecosan toilets and 18 ablution blocks were constructed, benefiting over 160,000 people. An additional 1.7 million people now have access to sewerage services, with urban cover- age at 32 per cent and rural eight per cent.
To reduce dependence on rain-fed agriculture and improve food security, all State irrigation schemes under the National Irrigation Board (NIB) are being revived. Growth of small-scale irrigation schemes to expand irrigation acreage is being encouraged. Areas that the NIB brought under irrigated agriculture include Lower Kuja in Migori; Lower Sio in Busia; Ugenya, Alego and Usonga in Lower Nzoia; Muringa/Banana in Maara District; and Kagari-Gaturi in Embu. Schemes that use pumps are being converted to gravity systems in areas such as West Kano, Ahero, Bunyala, Bura and Hola to make irrigation more sustainable and cost-effective.
The continued degradation of land and resultant decline of water conservation and land productivity is an area of great concern. Eroded soils from bare and degraded lands are deposited into dams, pans, lakes and other reservoirs, destroying expensive infrastructure, reducing water storage volume and causing loss of expensive national investments. In response to this challenge, the Ministry of Water and Irrigation has finalised, through stakeholder consultations, proposed a National Land Reclamation Policy to guide land reclamation initiatives. Additionally, the ministry has embarked on an intensive Integrated Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASAL) development programme targeting to increase water conservation, environmental rehabilitation and restoration, promotion of research in ASAL resources management and the adoption of alternative livelihoods to facilitate sustainable economic and social development of communities. The ministry is implementing land reclamation activities in seven ASAL counties of Turkana, Garissa, Baringo, West Pokot, Laikipia, Isiolo and Mwingi. Over 2,880 hectares of land were reclaimed in 2011 and this land is currently in use to mitigate food and fodder insecurities.
Energy is one of the infrastructural enablers of the three pillars of Vision 2030. The level and intensity of commercial energy use in a country is a key indicator of the degree of economic growth and development. Kenya is, therefore, expected to use more energy in the commercial sec- tor on the road to 2030. As incomes increase and urbanisation intensifies, household and commercial demand for energy will also rise. Preparations have been made to meet this growth in demand for energy under the Vision. Equitable access to energy services is an essential element of sustain- able development, economic growth and achieving the UN Millennium Development Goals. Indeed, it will be almost impossible to achieve the MDGs without significant improvement in the quality and quantity of energy services. Meeting the Millennium Development Goals requires access to at least three types of energy services:
- energy for cooking
- electricity for illuminating, ICT and appliances to support house- hold and commercial activities and the provision of social services
- mechanical power to support enterprises and other productive use. Yet, only about 20 per cent of households have access to electricity from the national grid and over 60 per cent of people still rely on traditional biomass for cooking and heating. The connection rate is around 12 per cent in the rural areas.
Kenya, therefore, lags behind its economic peers in household electrification and per capita energy, leading to unequal access to electric energy and uneven development in the country. The Government has long acknowledged this challenge, and real progress has been achieved in the past years towards improved access to electricity and also in expanding access to modern energy services beyond the grid.
Reliability of power is also critical. Vulnerability of energy supplies and dependence on imported fuels, traditional biomass and hydro power leaves Kenya prone to price volatility, supply instability and interruptions in dry periods bring physical hardships and heavy economic burdens. The hydrology crisis faced by Kenya had tremendous impacts on the power supply in 2006 to 2009, leading to power rationing in August and September 2009 and the import of expensive emergency power from 2006. The cri- sis has shown the vulnerability of the hydro-dominated power system and highlighted the need for the diversification of the sources of power supply.
Other targets include adding one million customers by 2015 and connecting 100 per cent of priority loads defined as district headquarters, secondary schools, health facilities and trading centres — within five years. This scaling up will ensure the benefits of electrification will reach poorer households, equitably expand- ing from urban and residential areas to peri-urban and rural areas and social institutions. Beyond electricity access, to allow for a more equitable economic growth and poverty reduction, the Government is promoting the use of cleaner cooking and heating fuels and technologies.
Indigenous renewable energy
A task force on accelerated development of green energy has set the target of 2,000 mega watts of additional “green energy” generation capacities by 2014 (compared to the 1.3 giga watts of total grid capacities). To achieve this target, traditional public stakeholders and independent power producers will need to step up their investments tremendously in geothermal, wind, solar and biomass energy.
The Government further intends to set up a Green Energy Fund Facility under the National Task Force on Accelerated Development of Green Energy to lend funds to viable renewable energy projects at concessional rates. Fast-tracking geothermal development by setting-up a fund for cost sharing and under- writing investors’ losses in case the sunken wells turn out to be dry, is also a key challenge to geothermal development.
Massive mobilisation of funds
Expanding access and diversifying supplies will require the mobilisation of more than Kshs400 billion ($5 billion) over the next five years. This calls for strong coordinating lead from the Government and stronger planning. Financial evolution of the sector, including increased levels of equity for energy generator KenGen and electricity distributor Kenya Power, is necessary.
Commercial energy in Kenya is dominated by petroleum and grid electricity, while wood fuel provides energy needs of most households in rural communities and the urban poor. Kenya has implemented important electricity and general energy sector reforms since the early 2000s. The energy sector has been restructured as per the Sessional Paper No.4 of 2004 and the Energy Act No.12 of 2006. The national energy development strategy is also embedded in the Least Cost Power Development Plan (LCPDP), the Rural Electrification Master Plan, the Feed-in Tariff (FiT) Policy, the Kenya National Climate Change Response Strategy and Kenya Vision 2030.
The Rural Electrification Authority was created in July 2007 and in December 2008 a transmission company, Ketraco, was created to facilitate open access to the grid to the end-user and bear the investment costs of an expanded transmission back-bone. The Geothermal Development Company (GDC) was set up to tackle the investment risks related to the exploration stages of geothermal power. The introduction and implementation of the feed-in-tariff policy in 2008, which was revised upward in January 2010, is a positive move towards attracting private investments and diversifying supply, especially from renewable sources such as wind energy. Recently, the introduction of a number of tax incentives offered to sugar companies to encourage investment in energy and improve their bottom-line led to an announcement by several private companies that they will invest in energy production.
The financial sustainability of the sec- tor has been reinforced. In July 2008, the Energy Regulatory Commission revised the retail tariffs to cost recovery level through a 24 per cent increase, on average. Kenya Power and KenGen then signed their power purchase agreements in 2009. This financial strength has been recognised by the financial market as shown by the success of KenGen’s public bond which was subscribed over the initial target of Sh15 billion.In the 2009/2010 financial year, Ken- Gen commissioned a new hydro project (Sondu Miriu, 60mw) and wind project (Ngong, 5.1mw), a geothermal project (Olkaria II Unit 3, 35mw), another hydro project (Kiambere upgrade, 24mw).
Several independent power producers have come on line (Olkaria III, 35mw of geothermal, Mumias Sugar Company, 26mw of co-generation, Rabai, 90mw, IberAfrica 52.5mw and KenGen Kipevu III 120mw of medium speed diesel).
Kenya Power has consistently met its main targets:
- Annual connections rose from 50,000 in 2001/2002 to 200,000 in 2008/2009 and sustained in 2009/2010
- Total number of Kenya Power customers rose from 800,000 on June 30, 2006 to approximately 1.6 million in March 2011
- System losses as a proportion of energy purchased reduced from 19.6 per cent in 2005/06 to 16 per cent in 2010/11
The Government has also focused beyond electricity, paying attention to the energy needs of the poor in rural areas, as well as in urban slums for equitable and sustainable development of all areas of the country. So far, 300 schools and dispensaries in ASALs have been provided power with solar while another 200 will be connected in the course of 2012/2013. In areas off the national grid, isolated grids or mini-grids and stand-alone solar PV installations are planned to be used to expand access to energy. The current sources of electrical power generation are hydro 3,025 Gwh (51.2 per cent), thermal oil 1,819 Gwh (30.8 per cent), geothermal 1,046 Gwh (17.7 per cent), co-generation six Gwh (0.09 per cent), wind 0.3 Gwh (0.01 per cent) and imports 11 Gwh (0.2 per cent).
Coal is mainly used in the industrial sector, particularly in the cement industry to process heat. Coal use has remained low in Kenya, despite inter- national prices being reasonable and fairly stable over the years compared to petroleum.According to the 2009/2010 MTP targets, the sector is to increase the country’s power generating capacity by 1,516mw, increase the number of Kenyan households with electricity connections by 27 per cent and mobilise private sector capital for generation of electricity, especially from renewable energy sources.
The energy sector has realised several achievements in the past four years. These include actualising targets on transmission lines where tenders for the construction of high capacity transmission line consisting of 450km double circuit 400kV between Nairobi and Mombasa have been awarded. The contract for the construction of the Lake Turkana 300mw wind power plant has been developed and approved by the Electricity Regulatory Author ity (ERC) and the plant is expected to be commissioned soon. Negotiation with the successful bidder for plants 1 and 2 at Athi River Mining Coal Power Station started in February 2010, while Athi River Mining Coal Co-generation Plant is expected to be commissioned soon. A major geo-thermal project was commissioned in August 2012.
On hydro power plants, Sangaro 20MW hydro plant at Sondu-Miriu spillway is under construction and is expected to be completed in 2012. Also, the power purchase agreement (PPA) for the three mega watts mini- hydro project by Genpro Systems(EA) Ltd has been approved. Further, PPA for the one mega watt plant by the Kenya Tea Development Agency’s Imenti Tea Factory, of which about 500kv is being fed into the national grid, was signed. The Mombasa-Nairobi Pipeline capacity enhancement project was commissioned in November 2011. Additional upgrade is being done at Kipevu oil storage facility to improve the suction pressure and to enable the pipeline to operate at 880,000 litres per hour as anticipated.
On policy, legal and institutional reforms, a tribunal to arbitrate disputes in the sector has been established. A specialised agency to pro- mote and ensure higher uptake of rural electrification programmes has also been set up.
Science, technology and innovations
Vision 2030 proposes intensified application of science, technology and innovation to raise productivity and efficiency levels across the three pillars. It recognises the critical role played by research and development (R&D) in accelerating economic development in all the newly industrialised countries of the world.To this end, the Government created the science, technology and innovation (STI) sector policy frame- work to support Vision 2030. STI seeks to integrate knowledge into all production and trading systems through enhanced access, equity, relevance and quality of outcomes in higher education, science, technology and innovation. The sector has this far focused on:
- Strengthening the technical capacities and capabilities of STI and technical industrial vocational education training (TIVET) institutions and systems
- Developing a core mass of highly skilled human resources; intensifying innovation in priority sectors, including setting up a functional national innovation system
- Enhancing awareness of policy makers, implementers and beneficiaries on the role of knowledge in promoting productivity and competitiveness.
Given that TIVET is critical to the development of industry-specific human capacities, high quality training services must be delivered by the sector to enhance productivity and competitiveness. The potential to achieve both the Vision 2030 and MDGs lies with development and actualisation of STI. This will in turn produce both knowledge and products that will reduce the burden of poverty, hunger and disease in Kenya. A number of milestones have been realised in line with Vision 2030. These include a national STI indicator survey, initiations of mechanisms for establishment of a science and technology park and three industrial incubators, and signing of an agreement between the Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology and the Korean City of Djeon. These interventions were aimed at strengthening STI capacities and capabilities.
At the same time, plans for construction of eight new TTls are in progress. Along the same lines, a total of 14,000 students in TIVET were awarded bursaries as part of the initiative to develop a pool of STI personnel. A research fund to promote intensification of innovations in priority sectors was operationalised, research grants awarded and disbursed to identified researchers during the period under review. A framework to collate and disseminate information on STI awareness was established. National and regional committees have also been set up to organise educational and information exchange. Further, continued upgrading and modernisation of training equipment, improvement of physical facilities and development of centres of excellence was upheld. Eleven TTIs were funded to procure the relevant equipment. On policy, legal and institutional reforms, three Bills — STI, University Education and TIVET — were prepared.
A biosafety regulation document was also finalised. STI faces a number of challenges, which include lack of centralised and well co-ordinated systems for collecting, collating, storing, retrieving and disseminating essential information. Most facilities in STI institutions remain short of basic infrastructure and state- of-the-art equipment necessary for undertaking quality training and R&D programmes. Other challenges are inadequate resources, weak financial management and accountability systems, weak balance between operation of income generating initiatives and maintaining educational quality, limited linkages and low levels of collaboration between the supply and demand sides of the labour market, skills mismatch, outdated national occupational classification standards, and logistics for rolling out STI services in all the 47 counties.
Information and communication technology
This is one of the major drivers towards attaining Vision 2030. ICT has proved to be a major catalyst for improving the country’s socio-economic development in general and the welfare of the population, in particular. The sector aspires to achieve the status of a knowledge and information-based society by the year 2030. This aspiration is driven by the growth in the global business outsourcing industry. The arrival of fibre optic cables in Kenya and the East African region heralded the era of fast Internet connectivity, which opened more opportunities in business and trade. The impact of fibre optic cables in Kenya’s business environment is being felt already, as more firms and individuals adopt its use. High speed Internet connection is one of the major benefits of the fibre optic technology. They have capacity to transfer higher amounts of data than other transmission media, and hence more broad- band. The use of optic signals means high speed Internet connection. This means data exchange within businesses and institutions is going to be very fast and efficient. High speed and capacity also significantly reduces the costs of communication, and thus reduced cost of doing business. Inter- net safety will also be enhanced as no radiation is associated with fibre- optic cables. This technology offers the most secure data transmission when compared to other media. This is an important feature, especially when it comes to transmitting confidential information. Businesses, governments, organisations, institutions and even individuals always want the highest privacy possible when trans- acting over the Internet. Thus more and more people are going to execute businesses online, since security is well catered for by these cables.
The cost per megabyte of data transmitted dropped by more than half from the 2007 baseline figure of Sh6,000 ($70.6) to Sh2,500 ($30) in 2008/2009. The MTP price reduction target was Kshs5,000 ($60) in 2008/2009 from Kshs6,000 ($70) in 2007. By 2009/2010, the actual cost per MB of data transmitted was Kshs500 ($6) against MTP target of Kshs2,000 ($24).
The proportion of the population using the Internet increased from 7.7 per cent in 2007 to 10 per cent in 2008/2009, and to a further 13 per cent in 2009/2010. This number increased to about 14.3 million users by July 2011. The number of households with access to radio increased from 90 per cent in 2007 to 95 per cent in 2009/2010, against the MTP target of 97 per cent. Access to TV increased from 80 per cent in 2007 to 86 per cent in 2009/2010, four per centage points below the MTP target of 90 per cent. The population with mobile phones increased from 39 per cent in 2007 to 45.7 per cent in 2008/2009 and to a further 63.5 per cent in 2009/2010 against the MTP target of 50 per cent.
Other milestones realised in ICT towards the attainment of Vision 2030 are adoption of shared services by the Government, and the laying of three major submarine cables – SEACOM with a capacity of 1.2 terabytes, the Eastern African Marine System (TEAMS) with a capacity of 1.3 terabytes, and East African Sub- marine Systems (EASSY) cable with a capacity of 1.3 terabytes — and the expanded backbone (CT infrastructure network).
With the improved infrastructure, mobile phone subscribers hit 26.4 million by September 30, 2011, up from 25.3 million recorded at the end of June, 2011. The fixed line subscriptions, however, decreased to 355,492 from 374,942. The total teledensity during the period July to September 2011 increased to 68.1 per cent, up from 65.15 per cent recorded in the period ending June 2011.
The Communications Commission of Kenya first quarter ICT sector statistics report for the 2011/2012 financial year indicates that the minutes of use per subscriber per month recorded an 8.4 per cent increase to 89.3, up from 82.4 reported during the previous period. A further increase of 124.38per cent was recorded in the number of short messages (SMS) per subscriber per month from 5 SMSes during the previous quarter to 18.99 SMS during the quarter under review. The estimated number of Internet users reached 14.3 million users, up from 12.53 million recorded during the previous period, representing an increase of 14.06 per cent .
Broadband subscriptions increased by 4.5 per cent in the quarter running from July to September 2011 to stand at 126,589 from 121,126 recorded during the previous quarter. On the other hand, international Internet connectivity bandwidth increased seven-fold to reach 213,048.83Mbps from the 32,270.52Mbps recorded during the 2010/2011 financial year. The increased use of ICT infrastructure saw postal services recording a 15.2 per cent decline in the number of letters sent from 24.26 million letters sent during the previous quarter to 20.51 million. The number of international outgoing letters grew by 50.07 per cent from 1.81 million letters sent during the last quarter of 2010/2011 to 2.72 million by September 30, 2011.
On policy, legal and institutional reforms, an ICT policy and an e-Government and institutional ICT policy and strategy paper have been developed. Measures are also underway to establish infrastructure required to facilitate delivery of online government services to the public. The Government launched the KenyaOpen Data initiative in July, 2012, which made key government data is freely available to the public through a single online portal.
The Government in January 2009 enacted the Kenya Communications (Amendment) Act 2009 to enhance the regulatory scope and jurisdiction of Communication Commission of Kenya (CCK), and effectively trans- formed it into a converged regulator. The CCK facilitates the development of information and communications – including broadcasting, multimedia, telecommunications and postal services — and e-commerce through proper regulations.
A number of regulations in the sector are in place, including the 2010 Information and Communications (Regulations), which regulate fair competition and equality of treatment, dispute resolution and inter- connection and provision of fixed links, access and facilities, and the Broadcasting Guidelines. Another important landmark in institutional reform is the establishment of a Government data centre, www.opendata.go.ke, to provide digital information.
Achievements in the development of ICT infrastructure include:
- The laying of the under sea fibre optic cable known as The East African Marine System (TEAMS), which is currently providing international connectivity to Kenya and the East African region, is complete
- The construction of the National Optic Fibre Backbone Infrastructure (NOFBI) phase I connecting all the 47 counties in Kenya is complete
- The Kenya Transparency Communication Infrastructure project, expected to greatly facilitate online delivery of Government services, is 70 per cent complete, while the establishment of the Government Data Centre and the Government Core Common Network is complete and operational.
- The Ministry of Information and Communications has continued to modernise the mass media facilities and equipment to improve service delivery. The ministry has licensed two operators to roll out the analogue to digital TV migration in the country. Public broadcaster Kenya Broadcasting Corporation has rolled out digital signal infrastructure covering Nairobi and its environs.
- The ministry has identified land for the construction of a National Data Centre for digital content storage and disaster recovery in the country.
The usefulness of ICT as a development catalyst in Kenya has, however, not been fully exploited compared to countries in Southern Africa, Asia, Europe and America. This is mainly because of poor and inadequate ICT infrastructure, weak collaboration between the Government and the private sector, limited local ICT talent pool, inadequate financial resources, weak institutional and legal frame-work, particularly to govern automated services and electronic transactions, poor access and availability of ICT infrastructure in rural and poor urban areas, and language and content imitations.
Land plays an important role in promoting social, political and economic development. This makes it one of the major sources of conflict in Kenya. Land reforms, therefore, aim at improving fair access to land and ensuring better use of natural resources. Access to land remains a critical ingredient in the achievement of Vision 2030’s medium term goals, which include modernising land registries, preparation of the National Spatial Plan, establishment of a National Land Information Management System, development of National Land Use Master Plan, and implementation of a land ownership documents replacement programme. Some 125,000 land records and 61,000 cadastral survey plans have been scanned and kept in custody. A report on the harmonisation of land reference numbers was also prepared and models of integration developed. Further, preparation of terms of reference for development of the National Land Information Management System (NLIMS) was initiated.
Five modern land registry offices have been constructed and 11 district land registries and the Ministry of Lands’ headquarters have been rehabilitated. Construction of Isiolo and Kitale land registry offices were also initiated. Further, a total of 126 topographical map sheets databases were created in 2009/2010 compared to the MTP target of 100. Ten topographical maps for the extended Nairobi Metropolitan area were also updated as envisaged in the MTP. The National Land Policy was developed and adopted by Parliament in 2009 and is being implemented. Public awareness meetings were held to educate the public about the policy and its contents. A concept paper on the National Land Use Policy and the National Spatial Plan have been prepared. A draft Kenya National Spatial Data Infra- structure Policy was developed and shared with stakeholders. Challenges encountered in under- taking the land reforms envisaged under the MTP include inadequate funding, lack of a comprehensive land policy, population pressure and cultural practices that promote fragmentation and sub-optimal use of land and disparities in land ownership Limited land adjudication and registration, inefficient land administration systems and manual land information systems are also major challenges
Public sector reforms and transformation
This is a central feature of economic policy reform programmes in aimed at improving efficiency, effectiveness and quality of public services, and improving the country’s fiscal performance in the medium and long term. An efficient, motivated and well trained public service is, therefore, a major foundation of the Kenya Vision 2030. The scope of this move is to ensure that there is an attitudinal change in the Public Service, emphasising transparency and accountability in serving Kenyans. Result-based management (RBM) and performance contracting have now been prioritised and emphasised.
The Kenya School of Government (the former Kenya Institute of Administration) has been established to provide research and training in transformative leadership. The school has three satellite campuses in Baringo, Embu and and Matuga. Other achievements include the putting of all the 46 Government ministries and departments, 168 State corporations, 175 local authorities and 68 tertiary institutions on performance contracts. The RBM was also enhanced with the rolling out of the Rapid Results Initiatives (RRls) in 193 ministries, departments and agencies. Public sector reforms have suffered from overly ambitious, inadequately prioritised, sequenced reforms and low emphasis on their role in improving public service. Further, public sector reforms are implemented by many organisations, with little coordination and limited cross-fertilisation with the other reforms
Security, peace building and conflict management
The economic, social and political pillars of the Kenya Vision 2030 are grounded on the existence of security, peace and tranquillity. Measures undertaken since 2009/2010 to enhance the country’s security include the development of 800,000 ten print forms, also known as P20s which can now be linked with corresponding criminal attributes forms, popularly referred to as C8s through Bar Codes and personal identification numbers (PIN). Hydro- carbon detectors, electrolytic restoration enhancers, darkroom latent fingerprint developer, alternative light sources and forensic chemicals were acquired. Digital printers were also installed and are in operation.
Some 1,615 housing units for the Kenya Police and 1,478 for the Administration Police (AP) were completed in 2009/2010, while construction of 1,754 housing units is ongoing. In 2010/2011, 551 housing units for the Kenya Police were constructed and 177 units were leased for the Adminstration Police (AP). Ongoing projects include development of Coroner’s police service, drafting of the Independent Police Oversight and Private Security bills. Other milestones include the launch and operationalisation of the new police curriculum, establishment and operationalisation of 281 district peace committees, improved police visibility, reduction in crime, modernization of security equipment and facilities as well as reduction in the police to population ratio.
Challenges in this area include: availability and access to illicit small arms and light weapons; structural deficiencies; enhancing and sustaining the Government’s capacity to respond to early warning, violence and conflict; and competition for access, utilisation, and control and ownership of resources; high levels of unemployment and poverty; drug and sub- stance abuse and human trafficking.
A critical governance measure has been the need for a metropolitan police force. Nairobi being a national, regional and inter- national strategic centre for education, commerce, transport, regional cooperation and economic development. It also connects the Eastern, Central and Southern African countries. In the financial year 2010/2011, 1,381 street and public lights were installed. Further progress has been made on road safety and transport system. An urban development policy, integrated transport policy and solid waste management policy have been prepared